Homestyle Vegan Pumpkin Pie

Pumpkin pie has always been my favorite holiday pie! The first time I tasted a vegan tofu-pumpkin pie, my heart sank. Though it was good, it didn’t taste like the pumpkin pie that I had known and loved my whole life. After MUCH trial and error, I have finally found a way to make a vegan pumpkin pie that tastes just like the traditional thing! And it happens to be very simple to make, too. If you’ve ever been disappointed by a vegan pumpkin pie, please give this one a try!

Pumpkin Pie Ingredients:

  • 1 8-inch or 9-inch unbaked pie crust (homemade or storebought)
  • 2 cups pureed pumpkin (or one 15-oz can)
  • 1 cup plain nondairy milk (soy, almond, coconut)*
  • 3/4 cup sugar
  • 2 1/2 – 3 Tbsp cornstarch
  • 1 tsp cinnamon
  • 1/2 tsp ground ginger
  • 1/2 tsp salt
  • 1/4 tsp ground cloves
  • 1/4 tsp ground nutmeg (or freshly grated nutmeg, just estimate!)
  • vegan whipped topping, if desired**


Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Combine pumpkin, non-dairy milk, sugar, cornstarch, salt, and spices in a large bowl, and mix very well with an electric mixer (alternatively, you can combine these ingredients in a blender). Pour into unbaked pastry shell, and bake for about 60 minutes. The pie will still be jiggly when you take it out of the oven, but it will firm up as it cools. Cool completely on a cooling rack, cover with plastic wrap, and refrigerate for several hours or overnight before serving. Serve chilled and top with vegan whipped topping if desired.


* I usually use soy milk for this recipe.  Almond milk will also produce great results.  Coconut milk will yield a rich and creamy pie but the flavor of the coconut will come through a little bit, so keep that in mind.  The only milk I would not recommend is rice milk – the consistency is a bit too thin to produce a nice creamy pie.

** Soyatoo soy whipped topping (pictured above) is a delicious vegan alternative to whipped cream, and can be found in some supermarkets such as Whole Foods.  The company now also makes a Rice-based whipped topping, if you are avoiding soy.  You can also whip up your own natural whipped cream using the solid part in a can of full-fat coconut milk (my favorite option).  Just add a few Tbsp of sugar, a tsp vanilla extract, and whip just as you would dairy whipping cream!


12/03/13 – It’s hard to believe it has been 6 years since I first posted this recipe!  I just want to add some notes in here as I think I’ve improved my pumpkin pie a little bit since it was originally posted.  I’ve had good results increasing the amount of cornstarch to 1/4 cup – it’s just a firmer texture that way.  I’ve also switched to using almost entirely coconut milk for this recipe.  I got the idea from Chloe’s Vegan Desserts and it’s really great.  (I still use the rest of my recipe though, I prefer my spice combo and I like less sugar.)  Since I often make 2 pumpkin pies at a time, my preferred method nowadays is to dump a can of full-fat coconut milk into a 2 cup measuring cup, whisk it until smooth, and then fill it up the rest of the way with soy or almond milk.  The texture of the pie becomes SO rich and creamy from the coconut milk!  (To those who don’t prefer the taste of coconut – I have a son who HATES anything coconut and he does not notice it in this pie.)  Thanks to everyone who has commented on this recipe, it really makes me happy to hear from all of you who have had success with it!


143 comments Add yours
  1. Oh yes. This is what I use, aproximately, too. SO YUM!!

    No tofu in my pie thank you. (I made it last time with the Silk Pumpkin Nog and less spices and sugar and it was DEEE-VINE!) The nog is thicker and resulted in an exquisite pie!

    The pic is BEYOUTEFULL too!

  2. I just discovered your blog–it is great! Thanks for posting this recipe (and all of your posts, which I am enjoying reading through)–I hate pumpkin pie with tofu!


  3. I have only made one pie in my life so I am really nervous about trying to make an “alternative” one for my daughters class party. I want it to LOOK normal more than anything and I just want to tell you I found your recipe through your picture, it is beautiful! Anyway, I am in the middle of making my trial run as we speak and if it turns out I would like to post it on my blog. I wanted to ask you first if I may post your recipe and second may I link it back to your site? Thank you 🙂

  4. Oh my goodness your pie is incredible! I’m going to have to make another one before I can post it because this one got eaten so quickly I didn’t have time to take a picture. I am known for my monsterous sweet tooth so I think I might try vanilla soymilk and take the spices down just a smidge. I can’t thank you enough for this recipe! 🙂

  5. I didn’t have ginger/cloves and i wasn’t going to buy them just for this so i didn’t use them. It turned out great BUT seems a bit too much sugar so i will cut it that down a bit next time. Thanks!

  6. I too found this recepie though your picture. I was looking for a lowfat recepie to make my FIRST EVER PIE with and I went from egg subsitutes to tofu to this. It was WONDERFUL! I couldn’t believe that it was made with soy milk! I added nutmeg on whim, and was instantly glad that I did because the smell of the nutmeg reminded me greatly of the store bought pies that I had always had as a child. I then had to add a bit more sugar though, because nutmeg is very stong. I also ran out of cornstarch so I had to use tapioca starch instead, but it came out fine.

  7. Thank you for this post on pumpkin pie. I found it inspiring and helpful. I appreciate it and would like to try the recipe.


  8. I’m actually a fan of the tofu pumpkin pie, but not a fan of rounding up the sometimes hard-to-find tofu that makes it great (semi-elusive, extra firm, silken variety). This recipe appealed to me because all I’d have to get is the can of pumpkin – a straightforward find in October.

    If you’re using pre-made crusts, this recipe is amazingly simple. So simple, in fact, that I was suspicious about the outcome.

    I made two for my Halloween party and my (non-vegan) guests LOVED them. Even without chilling and only a couple of hours after baking, the pie was perfectly firm.

    Thank you for this extraordinarily simple and delicious recipe!

  9. Thank you, thank you, thank you! This recipe turned out perfectly. My daughter is allergic to dairy and eggs and I am always searching for recipes using traditional ingredients. I made it exactly as posted and it was wonderful. It was her first pumpkin pie and she loved it. In fact, it was so good it beat out the Costco pie purchased for the rest of the family for Turkey Day. This recipe will remain permanently in the recipe box!

  10. Hi! Thank you for this recipe. My coworkers liked this pie better than traditional pumpkin pie! I mentioned and linked your blog to mine. I hope that is okay. If not, I will remove it.

  11. Thanks so much for posting this. I am a vegan mother of four and we celebrated our New Year’s Eve with your pumpkin pie recipe. It turned out great! I am interested in snooping around and looking at the rest of your vegan recipes. 🙂 Happy 2011 from a fellow vegan blogger.

  12. i looked for quite a while to try and find a decent vegan pumpkin pie. tomorrow i’m going to a vegan potluck thanksgiving and i did not see pumpkin pie on the list. of course i thought OH THE BLASPHEMY!!!!
    So I am bringin’ pumpkin pie! I really want to try it because it smells so good!!! I’m going to wait until tomorrow though, purchase some vegan whipping cream because pumpkin pie is not pumpkin pie without whipping cream, and hopefully this recipe will turn out as good as everyone is saying it is!!!
    i’m really glad others have tried it though, i didn’t want to make anything that i had no clue if it would be good or not. though from your post alone i was pretty much sold.

  13. Hello, I made this a few weeks back in preparation for the holidays and wanting to make sure I had the recipe perfect before Thanksgiving. Needless to say, it was perfection. I just have one question. I want to save a few steps for the big day and make some things ahead of time. Does this pie freeze well? Or is it better suited to be eaten straight away? Thanks in advance.


    1. Oh man, I don’t know! I’ve always made this either the day I served it or the day before and just chilled it in the refrigerator. I think traditional pumpkin pie can be frozen and thawed though, so I imagine this is no different? Let me know how it turns out!

  14. Thank you for posting this recipe! It provided an excellent foundation for creating my first pumpkin pie. I didn’t add the cloves, used vanilla soy milk instead of regular, and used a graham cracker pie crust instead of the traditional pumpkin pie crust. DELICIOUS!

  15. thanks for the post. all the other recipes i found were basically pumpkin, tofu, and spice. i’m like “um, that’s not pie. that’s pumpkin tofu.” trying this out for my clients at a group home tonight!

  16. I just made it again today and used the canned coconut milk using the solid part to make a whipped cream. Heavenly, just Heavenly! It was amazing! The pie texture was incredible and the whipped cream rocked. Thank you again for this awesome recipe.

  17. Hello! I’m planning on making your recipe for this Thanksgiving, and was wondering if you recommend sweetened or unsweetened almond/soy milk for this pie recipe?

    1. I always use sweetened but unsweetened would work just fine if that’s what you have. Taste test the batter before pouring it into the pie, and add a little more sugar if you want to make up for the fact that the milk is unsweetened. But I doubt it will make much difference.

  18. I want to try this recipe, but I want to add some Amaretto – Does anyone know what I should do so that the pie doesn’t become too runny? What should I add more of since I’m adding the Amaretto?

    1. I’m sorry, I have no idea! Hopefully someone else can help you out on this one. The cornstarch is what thickens the pie so that’s all I can think of, maybe increase the cornstarch?

      1. Hi, I made this and added 1/4 c of brandy and a half tsp more of cornstarch. It turned out perfectly! Then, I glazed some pecans in maple syrup, sprinkled them on top, ran under the broiler for a minute before sprinkling on a few grains of sea salt. It was lovely with the cream, also whipped with a couple tablespoons of brandy! Adult pumpkin pie! hahaha

  19. Thank you so much for posting this recipe. I tried a vegan pumpkin pie recipe using tofu and didn’t care for it. This one is very close to traditional pumpkin pie. Delicious and easy. I used cashew cream for the milk because I had some on hand. That works well, too.

  20. Just wanted to let you know that I made this today for Thanksgiving and it turned out amazing. I completely agree about pies that use tofu as a binder, they definitely have a funny taste. Thank you for this great alternative! I will be posting pictures on my own blog soon 🙂

  21. Thank you so much for this recipe! I made it for Thanksgiving (my first attempt at making pumpkin pie and i was skeptical of tofu recipes). It tastes identical to regular pumkin pie-even my non-vegan family loved it.Thank you!

    1. Yay! My non-veg family likes it too. At first someone always made a non-vegan pie in addition to my vegan one, now everyone just eats my vegan pumpkin pie. 🙂 Happy Thanksgiving!

  22. Holy Cow! This was THE the most amazing pie I’ve ever made. I had kids who were sworn pumpkin pie haters ask for THIRDS! This texture and sheen on top was absolutely spot-on. I used Trader Joe’s “coconut milk beverage” for my liquid (NOT canned coconut milk) and the fat content and consistency is perfect for this recipe (not at all coconutty, either). I also subbed out the sugar for maple syrup (the fiance doesn’t do refined sugar). I made a gluten free crust and the result was absolute PERFECTION. I cannot thank you enough for this recipe! This is going into my permanent recipe binder! WHOO HOO!

  23. I made a vegan pumpkin pie last year without tofu and it turned out good. But this recipe this year turned out amazing!!! Thank you so much for posting this. Even the non-vegans at the Thanksgiving dinner we attended loved it. I look forward to making this pie many more times…and with no special occasion in mind.

  24. OMG this pie is to die for. i have been looking for a pumpkin pie that does not include dairy or tofu and this is the best recipe i found. i have never made a vegan pumpkin pie but i wanted to show my family that i can be vegan and have yummy desserts! thank you for the recipe 🙂

  25. no tofu is definitely the way to go!

    delicious alternative to soy whipped topping: whipped coconut cream. get a can of premium coconut milk. open it up and drain out the liquid, leaving just the thick creamy part. scoop that into a bowl with a couple teaspoons of icing sugar, maybe a bit of vanilla (optional), and beat it just like you would whipping cream, till it’s thick and fluffy (it never gets quite as fluffy as whipped cream, but close enough).

  26. The BEST vegan pumpkin pie ever!!! I used Silk Nog and sucanat in place of the milk and sugar. YUM!!!!!!!
    Thank you. This is the pie I will make for every holiday.

  27. I am so glad I found your blog and recipes! After 2 years as a vegetarian my wife and I became vegan. This weekend was our Canadian Thanksgiving and we weren’t looking forward to no pumpkin pie for desert! We thought that your recipe was better than a traditional one. We like lots of spice so I doubled the spices. I also used Belsoy “cream” instead of soy or almond milk. Needless to say, I will be making another within days, if I haven’t been persuaded make it sooner! Today I give thanks to you for the gift of this recipe!

  28. I made this pie over the weekend and it was PERFECT! I am so grateful to find a delicious and non-tofu-using vegan pumpkin pie recipe. I used coconut milk and didn’t find the flavor present in the final pie. Thank you so much for this great recipe!

  29. is the mixture suppose to be soupy?
    i used fresh pumpkin. i’ll find out if i was wrong to in about 45 minutes

  30. I just wanted to let you know that I made this for a party last weekend and everyone loved it! I am not vegan, but most of my friends are, so I made food that they could all eat. This is an amazing recipe! You cannot tell the difference between it and the non-vegan version. My friends loved it so much I am making one for my friends to take home this week (I cooked a leftover pumpkin from scratch so now I have plenty of pumpkin that I need to get out of my freezer haha). I used Plain flavored soymilk, the Sweetbay/Greenwise brand, in case anyone is wondering.

  31. Rebekah, I just had to stop by again and tell you that I can’t wait to make your yummy pie again this year. I’ve tried a LOT of vegan pumpkin pie recipes and none have even come close to yours.

  32. I was looking for pumpkin pie that I could feed to non vegans. I gave your recipe a trial run and fed some to the neighbors. They said it was the best pumpkin pie they’d ever eaten! I followed your recipe as written. When I make it for Thanksgiving, I will use a little less sugar. Thanks for the fabulous, simple recipe! Know that I’ll be checking your blog for other little gems like this one!

  33. Thanks SO much for sharing this wonderful recipe! This year is our first vegan Thanksgiving – with the added challenge of also living salt-free. Cannot tell you how excited I am to dig into this beautiful pie tomorrow. You’ve made me one happy woman!

    I adapted your recipe and shared with my readers via Facebook:

    Happy Thanksgiving to you!! 🙂

    1. I’m so sorry! Sometimes the consistency of pumpkin varies…did you use fresh or canned pumpkin? Sometimes I’ll get a pumpkin that turns out kind of watery so I’ll simmer it down in a pan until it thickens up. Also, did you put in the full 3 Tbsp of cornstarch? I tend to go with that higher quantity – made several of these this year and they all firmed up. But again my best guess on the culprit would be a watery pumpkin. Sorry it didn’t work out!!

  34. I found this recipe after searching for a dairy free recipe because I LOVE pumpkin pie but am lactose intolerant.
    I used vanilla almond milk for the milk, and since I’m not vegan I added two eggs. I baked it until the center was JUST past jiggly and let it cool.
    I made it the day before Thanksgiving (man how I love cold pumpkin pie straight from the fridge!) and when I finally could dig in I was in heaven! This is such a wonderful recipe for people with the same allergy as me!
    My husband, who isn’t lactose intolerant, was slightly hesitant to try it and insisted pumpkin was his least favorite pie. Now I realized I shouldn’t have pressed him to try it because he loved it, passing up childhood favorite desserts tonight to have more. Nothing makes me happier than finding recipes I can not only use for my favorite desserts as dairy free, but I LOVE it when my husband enjoys them just as much. A++ recipe, thank you!!!

  35. I made this pie for our recent thanksgiving and after all the jokes about me putting kale in the “healthy” pie, it was devoured! Everyone loved it and my mom even said it brought back childhood memories of her grandmother’s homemade pumpkin pie. Thanks so much for a great recipe, I’ll definately be making this again. One question: could I substitute 2 eggs for the cornstarch in a pinch?

    1. I don’t know, I don’t use eggs so I haven’t tried that, but traditional pumpkin pies use eggs for thickening which is what the cornstarch is there to replace. Thanks for the comment, I’m glad to hear that everyone liked it!

  36. What a wonderful recipe! I did end up using only 1/2 a cup of sugar or less, which was a great choice – this was the most authentic “pumpkiny” pumpkin pie I’ve ever tasted. I do think the seasoning is a bit light for my taste (not as much spice as I was expecting) but this recipe was a HUGE hit and I will definitely use it again with my little tweaks for personal preference. Thank you SO much for making a group of non-vegans believe in the power of a vegan dessert!

  37. This is the BEST pumpkin pie recipe I have tried (as well as the simplest). I have made it the past two Thanksgivings and my entire family (vegan and non) loves it. Thank you SO much for sharing this awesome recipe.

  38. I just read all the comments for this pie and am excited to make it this Thanksgiving! I only have pumpkin pie spice and was wondering how much to use of it to replace the individual measurements of spices. Thanks!

  39. Made it yesterday, just had a piece today with banana ice cream. It’s soooo good thanks! I was going to make a tofu version but I couldn’t find any silken tofu the other day so I looked for a non tofu version.

  40. I just made this for Canadian Thanksgiving and it was amazing! This was my first as a vegan and the pie was perfect. I’ll be making this one every year. Thank you!

  41. i’m going to use this recipe to make mini pies using keebler graham crusts. i was wondering how should i adjust baking time or temp??

  42. I made this last night and it turned out great. I made my own pumpkin puree from a fresh pumpkin as seen in Vegan Zombie’s “Pumpkin Puree” video. I had pumpkin spice, so I just added a couple teaspoons of that. I used unsweetened almond milk. For crust I used soaked, pitted, dates, maple syrup and almonds in the processor and smushed into the bottom of the glass pie dish. I meant to add pecans, but forgot. Thank you so much for this recipe. We all loved it.

    1. I think it is worlds better with homemade pumpkin puree! I made this from canned earlier in the month and I could taste the can. Definitely used fresh for Thanksgiving!

  43. OMG I can’t believe how good this is! And how easy it was to make! I even used a real pumpkin. I have really missed pumpkin pie since being vegan and I’m so excited to have a good recipe! I was thinking the filling could be pudding if you didn’t have a pie crust. I also want to try making it into vegan ice cream by adding extra soymilk to thin it out!

    THANK YOU for figuring this out! 🙂

  44. Definitely going to try this one this year! A quick question: do you generally use sweetened or unsweetened milks in this? That is, is the 3/4 C sugar supplemented by the sweetener in your soy (or whatever) milk, or is it better to go unsweetened?

    VERY excited for this one after reading all the good reviews! Like you, I’ve done much vegan pumpkin pie experimentation, with mixed results.

  45. I am so excited to try this recipe…our sons are vegan and I am constantly looking for recipes…can’t wait to make it!

  46. This pie looks amazing and I’m planning on making it for Thanksgiving on Thursday. My youngest is allergic to dairy and peanuts and has an egg intolerance so I’m always looking for vegan recipes for him. I wanted to ask, have you ever tried using oat milk or hemp milk in this recipe? I ask because we’re still evaluating him for an almond allergy and his tummy gets really upset with soy so we try to avoid both. How much of the coconut flavor comes through? That would be my first choice if you don’t think oat milk or hemp milk would work out. Thanks for your advice!

    1. Coconut milk works great and really doesn’t affect the flavor. I made it with full fat coconut milk this year and the texture was unbelievably creamy!

  47. Oh my golly gosh, this was GREAT! My first thanksgiving after being diagnosed with multiple food allergies, and was already being sad about the lack of pumpkin pie. Your recipe really saved the day, thanks!!!

  48. The first time I made vegan pumpkin pie it was a terrible tofu mess. This pie turned out fabulous! I bookmarked it and it is now my go to recipe for for Pumpkin Pie! Thank you for sharing:)))

  49. The vegan pumpkin pie is awesome. In the UK we have ‘Oaty’ cream and milk. I used one cup of Oaty cream and it is fabulous and better than the original non vegan version.
    mags in the UK

  50. THANK YOU so much for this recipe! It’s the first vegan pumpkin pie recipe I’ve tried that actually tastes like *real* pumpkin pie! ;] Everyone loves it- even the nonvegans, which is nearly impossible- so thank you! I made a few modifications when making it tho, adding ½ tub of silken tofu I had left over [water drained as much as possible] and a couple shakes of pumpkin pie spice mix on top of everything else (the rest of the spices I used were freshly ground, so this was a nice layering effect). I also added about a tsp. of arrowroot too. It was heaven!!
    So once again, THANKS, for this marvelously delicious recipe! XO

  51. Thank you for this recipe! I’ve made it several times the past few years and it’s always perfect. I leave out the nutmeg to give it the same taste as the recipe on the back of a famous brand of canned pumpkin. Perfectly delicious!

  52. I made this last year. Two things, I should point out …#1) I normally don’t like pumpkin pie, B) I have lactose issues. I LOVED THIS! It’s the first pumpkin pie I can think of that I actually liked and wanted seconds. I made it with almond milk. No one knew it was vegan until after they ate it when I told them. They could not tell. I will be making it again this year.

    Thank you!!

  53. This pie was the best ever. I didn’t have any ground ginger so I used allspice instead. I used 1 cup coconut milk. Shook the can before opening it to get it creamy. I left it in the oven an extra 10 minutes and then was afraid I burned it but it was perfect –best pie ever!

  54. Help. I tried your recipe twice and my pie starts cracking before the center is set. It doesn’t look like you have this problem in your photo. I need to freeze these pies so I can’t have them crack. Any ideas?

    1. It could be you are baking it too long? The center doesn’t always seem set when I take mine out of the oven, but it sets as the pie cools. That said, I do have a bit of cracking in most of my pumpkin pies, nothing too major, but it’s there. Sorry!

  55. I came across your recipe this morning and now have a pie in the oven getting ready to take to a barbecue, surely this will be a hit. I threw in a tiny amount of cardamom, and used Silk coconut milk. The filling is nothing short of perfection. So glad to have found this!

  56. This pie is so good! I made it with cashew cream, because I figured it would be a lot like coconut cream, but without the flavour. I also increased the amount of cornstarch as mentioned in your notes. My husband couldn’t wait for the pie to cool so we cut ourself tiny slivers while it was still warm, and they were soft but not liquid, which I was super impressed with! The pie actually set while cooling on the counter and I was able to enjoy a big slice before chilling it in the fridge! My omni husband says it’s the best pumpkin pie he’s ever had!

  57. I’ve been wanting to make a good vegan pie for my family for weeks now. I tried so many recipes decided to give yours a try and I have to say it came out perfect. I used 3 tbsp corn starch and the consistency is so smooth and creamy but still firm and has enough hold to be plated. Thank you!

  58. I made this pie last night, but this morning the texture was quite chewy. More of a pudding not so much creamy. Did I do something wrong?

  59. Your vegan pumpkin pie recipe is perfect and was the highlight of my Thanksgiving this year. I made three of them and they were absolutely perfect. After searching the internet for the best vegan pumpkin pie recipe, I saw how many positive comments you had over the years for your recipe. They are all well deserved! Thank you so much for sharing! Best wishes to you!

  60. What sensational reviews of your pumpkin pie — I will DEFINITELY try it next time!
    I have been making a sugar-free (Splenda) vegan pumpkin pie with pecan crust which we’ve liked a lot. But this year I went vegan and used tofu/soy yogurt plus cashew cream, and it cracked on top and, when re-heated, turned to pudding.
    Has anyone made your recipe with a non-sugar sweetener? Do you think it will work? (Hoping the cornstarch you recommend will keep it firm.) Thanks for any suggestion!

  61. The pie turned out great! It really was delicious and had the nice sheen on top. I admit I was skeptical that it was that easy to make and all these positive reviews. I subbed potato starch instead of cornstarch and used brown sugar along with almond milk. I will try coconut milk next time. Thank you!!

  62. Just wanted to leave a note as this will be the 4th year I’m returning to this recipe for Thanksgiving, it’s the best vegan pumpkin pie recipe I’ve found, and really simple! It tastes just like the pumpkin pie I remember as a kid 🙂

    I cheat and use a frozen store bought crust to make it even easier! I find that only 1/2 cup sugar (or sometimes even a bit less) is needed for my tastes, I use unsweetened almond milk and have had success with the note regarding increasing the corn starch to 1/4 cup. Can’t wait to bake this yummy pie Wednesday evening and have a wonderful all-vegan Thanksgiving with my husband!

    1. Thank you for sharing, Katie! I’m so glad your family enjoys it. It’s the same recipe that I use year after year, as well – though I do play with the types of plant milks that I use. Recently I’ve been using half coconut milk, half soy milk, for creamy but not too coconuty results.

  63. I randomly found this recipe back in 2013 or 2014(?) and made the best pumpkin pies ever with it! Next year I couldn’t find it again and the pies were oh, so sad. Today I sat here hunting on the internet for a good 20 minutes until I recognized it because these pies are worth it, haha.

    1. Thank you so much for this! I haven’t been blogging and something happened with the hosting and now it’s nearly impossible to find my recipes on google. I’m working on it – but I appreciate that compliment so much. I do love my pumpkin pie recipe, and it’s the one I use every single year. 🙂

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